Lingula anatina

Scientific Name:-
Lingula anatina

Common Name:-
Arrow worm

Malayalam Name:-




Elongate shell, oval to subrectangular, Weakly biconvex and poorly mineralized; Ventral valve has a weakly developed pedicle groove. They lack any form of shell articulation and rely on a complex internal musculature to keep the valves in place and to move them. The pedicle in these forms appears from between the two valves rather than a dedicated foramen in one of the valves. Also, unlike the other two brachiopod subphyla which have calcium carbonate shells, the ligulids have an organophosphatic shell. Again this hints at a primitive condition.


Not recorded.


Lingula anatina and other Lingulid brachiopods represent a group of organisms that have a fossil record stretching back over 500 million years to the earliest parts of the Palaeozoic. Cited as a Living Fossil. Though superficially similar to a bivalve with its shell, it is a filter feeder, not a mollusc.


Restricted to littoral and sub-littoral environments; the substrate can vary widely from estuarine mudflats to fine sands. They lead an infaunal lifestyle.




Emig, C. (2012). Lingula anatina Lamarck, 1801. In: Emig C.C., Alvarez F., Bitner M.A. (Ed) (2012). World Brachiopoda database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=235362 on 2013-01-04
Sudarsan, D. (1968). Brachiopod larvae from the west coast of India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section B: 68 (7): 59-68.

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